Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

Currently, the rate of diabetes in our country tends to be rejuvenated. The disease significantly affects health, daily life and especially causes many serious complications. So what is diabetes, is it scary? The following article will share with you all related information. Let’s refer to offline!

1. What is Diabetes?

After a meal, the carbohydrates from the meal are converted to a type of glucose. This sugar is absorbed in the intestine and dissolved into the bloodstream. During this time, the pancreas releases a hormone called insulin, which sends glucose into cells to supply the body with energy.

If insulin’s ability to function is problematic or glucose in the body goes up excessively, insulin cannot respond. At that time, a certain amount of sugar will not be converted into an energy source for the body and is excessively available in the bloodstream. If your blood sugar exceeds a certain percentage, it is called diabetes.

Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. The disease is mainly due to the lack of insulin or a hormone in the pancreas that lacks the ability to act in the body, leading to high blood sugar.

This disease is one of the causes leading to other serious diseases such as kidney failure, blindness, cerebrovascular accident, coronary heart disease,…

2. What kind of diabetes do you have?

Usually, diabetes consists of 2 main forms:

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a disease caused by an abnormality in the Langerhans island cells that reduces the secretion of the hormone insulin or does not secrete insulin, which is fatal. Most diseases occur in children and young people (under 20 years old) account for about 5-10% of the total number of people with diabetes. In this form of the disease, symptoms often occur suddenly and progress rapidly, so the disease can be identified.

Causes: The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Doctors believe that the cause of the disease is mainly due to genetics combined with environmental agents.

You are at high risk if your mother or brother, sister or sister has type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes

This is the most common form of the disease, common in people over 40 years old and has a tendency to rejuvenate. The number of cases in this form accounts for about 90-95% of the total number of patients with diabetes. The disease does not show symptoms of muscle function so it is difficult to detect.

In addition to the two main forms above, one form of the disease only occurs in pregnant women.

Gestational diabetes

This is an abnormal state in carbohydrate metabolism. Gestational diabetes goes away right after the baby is born. If not treated promptly, the disease can cause bad effects, affecting the mother and baby.

Causes: In pregnant women, the placenta produces hormones to help maintain pregnancy. These hormones make the cells more resistant to insulin. When the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, the amount of sugar accumulated in the blood increases leading to diabetes during pregnancy.

3. Symptoms to identify the disease

Here are some typical symptoms of the disease:

  • Excessive urination: High blood glucose levels lead to a high amount of glucose in the primary urine, which exceeds the threshold for renal absorption. Therefore, a portion of glucose is not reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, leading to a sugar presence in the urine. At the same time, due to the high sugar in the urine, it increases the urinary osmolality. So, water diffuses into the urine and increases urine volume, causing excessive urination. In children it is possible to develop nocturnal enuresis due to polyuria.
  • Drink a lot: When the body is dehydrated, it stimulates the hypothalamus causing thirst, causing the patient to drink water continuously.
  • Eat a lot: Because the body cannot use sugar for energy, the patient will quickly feel hungry, stimulating to eat more.
  • Slim: Although eating more than normal, but because the body cannot use glucose for energy, it is necessary to increase lipid and protid degeneration to compensate. Therefore, the patient is often emaciated and pale.

In addition, the patient also has symptoms such as dry mouth, nausea, blurred vision, slow healing of the sores, … To know for sure if you are sick or not, you should see a doctor and perform tests.

4. Possible complications

The longer a person has diabetes, the harder it is to control blood sugar. At this time the risk of complications increases, they develop gradually, if severe, can be life-threatening.

Some of the complications that can occur in patients are:
  • Cardiovascular disease: When you have diabetes, you have a higher risk of heart disease such as heart attack, atherosclerosis, stroke, … higher than normal.
  • Nerve damage: Excess sugar in the blood damages the small blood vessels that nourish the nerves, especially in the legs. As a result, it is common to feel itchy, numb, or painful sensation in the fingertips or toes that spread more and more. If left for a long time, the patient may lose sensation. In addition, when the damaged nerves in the digestive system cause vomiting, diarrhea or constipation.
  • Kidney damage: Diabetes can cause serious damage to the kidneys’ organs. In severe cases, the patient may have kidney failure or end-stage kidney disease that requires dialysis.
  • Eye damage: With this disease, the blood vessels of the retina can be damaged and potentially suffer from other serious vision problems: cataracts, glaucoma, …
  • Alzheimer’s disease: People with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
Possible complications during pregnancy:
  • The mother can develop pre-eclampsia with manifestations such as high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine, swelling of the legs. Not only that, but pregnant women are also at risk for this disease in their next pregnancy, and at the same time, when they get old, they can develop diabetes, typically type 2 diabetes.
  • The fetus can grow faster than their age, at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. If pregnant mothers do not treat, the baby can die before or after birth.
5. Treatment of diabetes

When you find out that you have diabetes, you need to see a doctor to be examined and have prompt treatment measures to avoid dangerous complications. If you have type 1 diabetes, your body doesn’t produce insulin on its own so you need to take them for the rest of your life. If you have type 2 diabetes, you need to pay special attention to your diet and regular exercise. At the same time, you can also use oral medications or insulin injections, metformin to control blood sugar.

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