Vaccination during pregnancy is the best way to reduce risks for mother and baby during 9 months of pregnancy. So how many shots does the pregnant woman need and which vaccinations should they get? The following vaccines are considered safe for pregnant women and their unborn babies.
1. Why should pregnant women get vaccinated?
Vaccination is an active preventive measure that is widely used today. Vaccines used primarily by injection or oral stimulation of the body’s immune system to produce antibodies against infections. Maternal immunization not only protects themselves but also helps children to avoid many infectious diseases in the womb and in the first months after birth. Therefore vaccination for pregnant women is necessary. When you intend to become pregnant and are in the care of pregnancy period, you need to monitor the pregnant woman’s vaccination schedule to fully inject the necessary injections on schedule.
2. Popular injections for pregnant women
As mentioned above, since women intend to conceive and give birth, women should actively learn about the necessary vaccinations. Many injections are given 3-4 months before your pregnancy. But there are also injections that can be made even if you are pregnant. In the context of this article, we only mention the vaccination schedule for pregnant women – that is, for pregnant women.
Get tetanus shot during pregnancy
During pregnancy, all women are recommended to get tetanus vaccination according to regulations issued by the Ministry of Health of Vietnam.
Tetanus is what disease?
Tetanus (also known as leprosy) is an acute disease caused by the toxin (tetanus exotoxin) of Clostridium tetani bacteria that develops at the wound in anaerobic conditions. The disease causes nerve damage, which also causes the muscles to stiffen and become paralyzed. If not treated promptly, the respiratory muscles will stop working, leading to death.
The disease usually begins after the lesions, about 7 days on average. Signs identify disease: muscle spasms, muscle pain, appearing mainly in chewing, nape, trunk.
The cause of tetanus is mainly due to scratches, skin tear, skin prick, open wound in direct contact with tetanus bacteria. This bacterium is ubiquitous and is mainly found in soil, dust, poultry manure, cattle, drains, thorough non-sterile surgical equipment, and rusted iron and steel.
Why do pregnant women need tetanus vaccination?
Tetanus is a serious disease with death rates up to 90%. Especially, tetanus in newborns causes over 95% of deaths.
Some people, who lack information, are subjective or are afraid of negative information about the vaccine, have not been vaccinated against tetanus before and during pregnancy. Therefore, the mother’s body is completely immune to tetanus, making her more likely to get sick. Babies can also get tetanus at any time, because they don’t have immunity in the womb.
Moreover, the risk of infection is higher when giving birth at health facilities that do not meet aseptic conditions. In particular, when giving birth at home, using a tool that has not been properly disinfected with boiling water to cut the umbilical cord, the risk of newborns being tetanus increases.
Pregnant women need a few shots tetanus?
For first-time pregnant women who have not had tetanus vaccination, need 2 shots.
– The first injection begins as soon as possible, usually starting from the 5th month of pregnancy.
– The second injection is given one month after the first one and at least 1 month before birth.
For pregnant women giving birth to the second child, only one injection is needed if the two injections are given when the first child is born.
Get a flu shot
When pregnant, the resistance of the pregnant mother is seriously reduced, so women are more susceptible to bacterial and viral infections. One of the most common respiratory infections is the flu. Pregnant women with the flu often have runny nose, cough, fever, headache and body aches. Influenza is very contagious, easy to treat but for pregnant women in the first 3 months if the flu is very easy to affect the fetus such as birth defects, premature birth, low birth weight babies.
Therefore, vaccination against influenza during pregnancy is essential for pregnant women. It is found that pregnant women who have been vaccinated against the flu during pregnancy and have a 25% lower risk of getting the flu. Because the flu vaccine can cross the placenta, enter the blood of the fetus, and protect newborns who have the flu for the first 6 months of life. This is important because babies younger than 6 months of age cannot get the flu shot yet.
It is important to keep in mind that influenza vaccines can be given at any stage of pregnancy or before pregnancy. Therefore, if the shot is given sooner, the mother and baby will be better protected.
Some women worry about getting a flu shot during pregnancy. However, pregnant women do not need to worry because the flu vaccine made from the inactivated virus is very safe for pregnant women.
Pertussis vaccination – diphtheria – tetanus (synthetic nose)
This injection should be given around 27-36 weeks of pregnancy, as soon as possible to prevent newborn babies from pertussis, tetanus and diphtheria.
A lot of cases of babies with pertussis have died. The disease is difficult to detect because many children with pertussis do not have symptoms of cough but they can stop breathing, cyanosis. Therefore, mothers elected to vaccinate pertussis during pregnancy will help newborns have antibodies against the disease while waiting until the baby is 2 months to be vaccinated.
3. Immunizations for pregnant women when indicated
These shots are usually given when the mother is elected to an infected area (traveling, working) or at a high risk of illness.
- Hepatitis A: This vaccine does not affect the fetus and is recommended for women at risk of infection.
- Hepatitis B: Pregnant women with hepatitis B can have a serious liver infection. Many women who do not have antibodies to the hepatitis B virus but are living with someone with hepatitis B or who have never been vaccinated should get hepatitis B vaccine.
- Pneumococcal: Pregnant women at high risk of getting pneumococcal bacteria that cause pneumonia, otitis media, and meningitis need to be vaccinated against pneumococcal. The injection schedule can be done from the 2nd trimester onwards, and if possible this shot should be done before you intend to become pregnant.
- Yellow sauce: Viral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are particularly dangerous for pregnant women. If you are pregnant and must travel to an infected area, you should consult a specialist before getting vaccinated
Before getting vaccinated, pregnant women need to see and consult with obstetricians as well as vaccine experts. Vaccines for pregnant women must ensure safety before being granted a vaccination certificate. However, a small number of women with atopic allergies must carefully monitor the health status after injection. The phenomenon of mild fever, pain at the injection site is completely normal.