During pregnancy, hormonal changes can cause pregnant women to experience medical problems, including gestational diabetes. Failure to detect and control blood sugar can lead to dangerous complications for both the mother and baby.
This is a disorder of glucose tolerance to any degree, detected during pregnancy. It can be said, diabetes mellitus (gestational diabetes) is a form of diabetes, only appear and exist only during pregnancy. Diabetes in pregnancy begins during pregnancy and resolves after birth. If within 6 weeks after birth, the mother with diabetes has not recovered, then she will not be diagnosed with gestational diabetes anymore but belongs to type 1 diabetes, type 2, diabetes caused by nutrition or diabetes symptoms. This means that the diagnosis of gestational diabetes most definitely is a retrospective diagnosis 6 weeks after birth.
1. Risk factors for gestational diabetes
Age over 25, but the risk is even greater when pregnant at the age of 35.
Overweight or obesity
Personal history of diabetes or gestational diabetes in previous pregnancies.
Family history of type 2 diabetes.
2. Diabetes during pregnancy
Diabetes can affect the developing fetus during pregnancy. In early pregnancy, a mother’s diabetes can lead to birth defects and an increased incidence of miscarriage.
Increased blood sugar during pregnancy damages the fetus, causing congenital abnormalities, enlarged fetuses or miscarriage. In the last 6 months of pregnancy, if the mother has hyperglycemia, it also causes fetal hyperglycemia and causes increased insulin in the fetus. After the baby is born, because the baby is not receiving sugar as much as it was in the mother’s womb, an excess of insulin will make the baby’s blood sugar below normal. Hypoglycemia in children is very easy to damage the brain nerve cells if not treated promptly. The pregnancy of diabetic mothers tends to be larger than normal, so it is easy to be at risk of preterm birth. Because of premature birth, babies are at higher risk for respiratory diseases, especially respiratory distress syndrome in infants.
Hyperglycemia in pregnant women will cause pre-eclampsia (hypertension, edema …) if not well controlled blood sugar. Maternal hypertension threatens the life of both mother and fetus. Diabetes in pregnancy can increase the blood concentration of the mother, so that the fetus also has hyperkinesemia – an unfavorable factor for the normal development of the fetus.
2.1 Complications of the disease
Complications that can affect pregnancy are:
– Mother back, tiredness, cramps, constipation, trouble sleeping …
– Pre-eclampsia: Gestational diabetes increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, which can be life-threatening for both mother and baby.
– Urinary infection
– The risk of diabetes recurrence in subsequent pregnancies with dangerous early complications
– Ability to develop diabetes, usually type 2 diabetes as you age.
Complications affecting the baby:
-Natural miscarriage, at risk of preterm birth.
-Tingle enlargement, amniotic fluid, exceeding growth
-Child weight, malnutrition, neonatal hypoglycemia, neonatal hypoglycemia: Due to the tight control of maternal blood sugar, maternal vomiting …
– Respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice
-The risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes later
-Development of skills, or hyperactivity disorder.
-Diseases of the retina, or the body such as pyelonephritis …
3. Symptoms of gestational diabetes
Because gestational diabetes doesn’t cause symptoms, you need to be checked for this condition.
4. Screening for gestational diabetes and testing
All women in pregnancy should be screened for gestational diabetes during their pregnancy. Screening can be done by taking a woman’s medical history, checking for certain risk factors, or screening with a glucose tolerance test.
5. Treatments and prophylaxis
The most basic and important treatment principle is to control blood sugar, keep your baby healthy and avoid complications.
-Track blood sugar 4-5 times / day, in the morning and after meals.
– Diet: lots of fruits, vegetables and cereals, limit sweets, fat, stimulants …
– Exercise regularly: helps reduce blood sugar, because sugar will be transported to the cells used for active energy.
-Use isulin to lower blood sugar as directed by your doctor.
-Track, observe the growth of the baby, check blood sugar periodically
To prevent gestational diabetes, mothers need to maintain a healthy habit, keep a stable weight, ultrasound and do basic tests during pregnancy, to see a doctor when there are abnormal signs.