Diarrhea is a fairly common disease in children and most parents are treated at home. However, if not properly handled can make the condition worse, and affect the health, as well as the development of children. Let’s refer to the information about diarrhea in children to know how to prevent and treat babies.
1. What is diarrhea?
Diarrhea is an increase in the number of bowel movements, usually more than 3 times a day, in thin or watery stools, sometimes with abnormal substances such as undigested food, mucus, blood. Children with diarrhea often have many causes, a very common disease. Because the distribution of water in children is different from that of adults, diarrhea can easily interfere with water and electrolytes, leading to dehydration, low potassium, low sodium and low calcium. When diarrhea is severe, if water is not promptly replenished, the blood volume in the body decreases, leading to shock, even life-threatening.
Prolonged diarrhea in addition to affecting the absorption of nutrients in food also consumes nutrients and certain tissues in the body, making children skinny, wrinkled skin, no rebound, Decreased resistance, prone to infections, adversely affecting the normal development of children. If vitamin A deficiency also causes turbidity, dryness, corneal softness, severe perforation, blindness. Therefore, it is necessary to actively treat acute and chronic diarrhea in children.
2. Causes – Expression of diarrhea in children
Causes of diarrhea in children
Due to viruses: Rotavirus is the main cause of diarrhea in children, accounting for 80%. at least 1/3 of children under 2 years of age have at least one episode of rotavirus diarrhea. Other viruses: Adenovirus, Norwalk virus also cause diarrhea.
E.coli: Causes 25% of acute diarrhea
Shigella dysentery is the causative agent of dysentery in 60% of dysentery episodes
Salmonella does not cause typhoid
Vibrio cholerae cholera bacteria 01
Due to parasites: Common is
These agents enter the baby’s body mainly through eating, especially eating dirty, unhygienic foods. In addition, if a child comes into contact with an infected person’s stool, he / she is at risk of diarrhea.
Manifesting diarrhea in children
Children who have diarrhea that is more loose than usual, having many bowel movements a day (more than 3 times a day) are considered diarrhea. Acute diarrhea that lasts less than 5 days, if it occurs more than 2 weeks is persistent diarrhea.
The disease usually occurs when ingested contaminated food or drink or comes in contact with an infected person’s stool, lack of scientific diet or medication. Parents need to have effective preventive measures in order for children to be in good health.
Based on the situation, diarrhea can be divided into mild, moderate and severe forms. Mild diarrhea, less than 10 times a day defecation, the amount of stool each time less than l0ml / kg body weight, no dehydration, poisoning. Moderate diarrhea 10 to 20 times a day, the amount of stool each time is from 10 to 20 ml / kg of body weight accompanied by mild or moderate dehydration, or mild poisoning. Severe diarrhea per day defecation more than 20 times, the number of stool per 20 ml / kg body weight, accompanied by severe dehydration or symptoms of intoxication.
3. Consequences of diarrhea in children
Persistent diarrhea in young children often results from acute diarrhea episodes. As a result of diarrhea, children often suffer from malnutrition, which can lead to death. Young children are at a higher risk of prolonged diarrhea than older children. The risk of acute diarrhea with persistent diarrhea in children in the first year is 22%, down to 10% in the second year and 3% in the third year.
A major threat to children’s health is dehydration diarrhea. So when diarrhea needs rehydration and electrolytes for the baby, using probiotics to balance microorganisms in the intestinal tract.
4. Management when a child has diarrhea
As soon as a child with diarrhea needs rehydration, it is best to take oresol, mixed according to the directions on the package. Offer babies from each spoon until each thirst is gone. If you do not drink the complete solution within 24 hours, pour it away.
Immediately adding probiotics to children: Probiotics help provide beneficial bacteria with benefits such as quickly establishing the balance of the digestive microflora and increasing the resistance of the digestive system.
If diarrhea to day 3 will cause secondary lactose intolerance. This often worsens diarrhea and is one of the causes of persistent diarrhea in children.
Children should be taken to a doctor when they have symptoms such as:
- Children with diarrhea persist for more than 2 days without remission.
- There is blood in the stool, blood can be bright red, pink or dark brown with mucus like nose.
- Stomach pain when touched.
- The phenomenon of vomiting much, unable to eat or drink.
- There are ways to show signs of dehydration such as: wrinkled skin, concave eyes, crying without tears, dimples, little urination, drowsiness, floating skin …
- Children have diarrhea with high fever.
- Therefore, to limit diarrhea for babies, parents should pay attention to hygiene in eating and drinking and to avoid exposing children to the sick.
5. Preventing diarrhea for babies effectively
Diarrhea in children can be effectively prevented by following the following tips:
- Follow the principle of cooked, boiled drink. Use clean water daily, when bathing children should tell children not to open their mouths or showers will be inside the body.
- Eat cooked food and not for too long. Thoroughly cook cooked food and do not let it last too long. Only give fruit when peeled and eat immediately by your own hands.
- Wash hands with soap and clean water, should wash your hands before preparing food, before eating or feeding, after changing diapers, sanitizing children, after using the toilet.
- Breastfeed your baby up to 6 months of age and breastfeed for as long as possible.
- Take vitamin A periodically by health care provider, measles vaccine, rotavirus vaccine.
- Do not expose children to sick people
- Avoid indiscriminate use of antibiotics