The heart is the most important organ in every body. It works steadily every day like a durable pump, to bring oxygen-rich and nutrient-rich blood to nourish all organs. To be able to operate continuously like this throughout life, the heart is nourished by a special separate blood vessel system, the coronary artery. Therefore, when these blood vessels are damaged or blocked, they will affect the health of the heart.
So what is the cause of coronary artery disease? And when you get sick, how will you need treatment to achieve the best effect? In this article we will learn more about coronary artery disease and its treatment notes.
What is coronary artery disease?
Coronary artery disease also has other names such as coronary artery insufficiency, coronary insufficiency, ischemic heart disease. This is a narrowed coronary artery, due to a blockage in the artery or a spasm of the coronary artery. This will limit blood flow to nourish the heart muscle and make your heart gradually weaken. This is considered the leading cause of death among cardiovascular diseases.
What causes coronary artery disease?
The main cause of coronary artery disease is the buildup of plaque in the lumen. This process begins when the inner lining of the artery is damaged by risk factors such as age; smoke; high blood cholesterol level; you have high blood pressure; diabetes mellitus; obesity, sedentary or often stress in life …
Over time, fat, cholesterol, platelets and calcium particles are deposited in the lesion site on the vascular wall. These substances can stimulate the cells of the artery wall to produce cytokines, leading to inflammation and attraction of the immune system’s white blood cells. After entering the artery wall, they become macrophages and begin to absorb fat droplets, further thickening the atheroma. Many cells can rupture, bind to platelets and form blood clots large enough to clog arteries.
Angina is a typical sign of coronary artery disease
The process of atherosclerosis of coronary arteries can progress slowly over many years without causing any symptoms, until the narrowing gets larger and the typical sign of angina is present.
Chest pain in coronary artery disease usually starts on exertion. Pain site right behind sternum, stinging, tight feeling, pain spreading to left shoulder, left arm and hand. Pain may subside when you rest or take vasodilators.
If the pain comes when you are completely rested or if your pain is severe for more than 30 minutes, it could be a sign of an acute myocardial infarction, which requires immediate medical attention. timely.
There are also cases of coronary artery disease that does not show any symptoms of chest pain, then it is called silent myocardial ischemia.
Coronary obstruction increases the risk of heart attack, arrhythmia and heart failure
Stenosis of the coronary artery will cause prolonged myocardial anemia and lead to many dangerous complications such as heart failure, arrhythmia and acute myocardial infarction.
– Heart failure: When some areas of your heart muscle lack of oxygen and nutrients for a long time, the heart will no longer be able to meet the body’s need for pumping blood, which will eventually lead to failure. heart.
– Heart rhythm disturbance: When the heart muscle is damaged by anemia to nourish it will affect the electrical conduction activities in the heart, thereby disturbing your heart rate.
– Myocardial infarction: occurs when atheroma and blood clots completely block the coronary arteries, damaging myocardium. Without timely emergency care, the death rate from acute myocardial infarction is enormous. After passing an acute myocardial infarction, you may develop heart failure and arrhythmia.
How is coronary artery disease diagnosed?
When symptoms of angina often occur, you should see a cardiologist early to be examined and detected coronary artery disease early. To make sure you have coronary artery disease, your doctor may ask about your medical history, the symptoms you are experiencing and perform some additional tests necessary, which may include: :
– ECG: helps record the electrical activity of the heart, thereby showing the abnormalities that indicate the presence of local myocardial ischemia and the location of the anemic area. If coronary artery disease is only mild and moderate, changes in the electrocardiogram will only occur when you exercise. You will then be tested for exercise, by cycling or running on a treadmill, and recording your ECG to diagnose coronary artery disease.
– Echocardiography: This method will help doctors see the areas of your heart muscle that are impaired by myocardial ischemia.
– Myocardial perfusion scan: A radioactive isotope is injected into your blood vessels. Areas of the heart muscle that are nourished by anemia reduce or fail to capture radioactive isotopes and are detected through a scanner.
– Selective coronary angiography, this method is considered a gold standard for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Through this method, the doctor will know if your coronary artery system is narrowed, blocked at any position, the degree of stenosis and how many blood vessels are damaged …
When you are diagnosed with coronary artery disease, you will need to know how to treat it to the best effect, to reduce angina and prevent complications of heart attack, heart failure.